THE DAY OF ATONEMENT: YOM KIPPUR
"For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to
you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the Lord. It shall
be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a
statute for ever." -Leviticus 16:30-31
"Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day
atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall
afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord.
And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement,
to make an atonement for you before the Lord your God. Ye shall do no
manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your
generations in all your dwellings. It shall be unto you a sabbath of
rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at
even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath."
"And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy
convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work
therein." -Numbers 29:7
The Day of Atonement symbolizes the reconciliation of God and all
humanity. Both the Passover and the Day of Atonement teach us about the
forgiveness of sin and our reconciliation with God through Christ's
sacrifice. However, although the passover is personally and (for the
time being) individually applied to Christians whom God has called in
this age, Atonement carries immediate universal implications.
Moreover, the Day of Atonement pictures an essential additional
God's salvation plan not to be found in the symbolism of the Passover.
This step must take place before humanity can experience true peace on
earth. All people suffer the tragic consequences of sin. But sin
doesn't happen without a cause, and God makes this cause clear in the
symbolism associated with the Day of Atonement.
The Day of Atonement involves not only the forgiveness of sin; it
pictures the removal of the primary cause of sin-Satan and his demons.
Until God removes the original instigator of sin, mankind will simply
continue to fall back into disobedience and suffering. The Day of
Atonement looks forward to the time during which Satan's deception will
be removed and he will no longer be free to influence and deceive
mankind (Revelation 20:1-3).
UNDERSTANDING THE PRIESTLY SERVICE FOR THE DAY OF ATONEMENT
Leviticus chapter 16, specifies the tenth of Tishrei as the date
which the high priest shall conduct a special ceremony to purge
defilement from the temple and from the people. The heart of the ritual
is that the high priest shall bring a bull and two goats as a special
offering. First, the bull is sacrificed to purge the temple from any
defilements caused by misdeeds of the priest himself and of his
household (Leviticus 16:6). Secondly, one of the goats is chosen by lot
to be sacrificed to purge the temple of any similar defilement
stimulated by misdeeds of the whole Israelite people (Leviticus 16:7-8).
Finally, the second goat is sent away, not sacrificed, to cleanse the
people themselves. The goat is marked for 'Azazel" and is sent away to
wander in the wilderness (Leviticus 16:10). Before the goat is sent
out, the high priest lays both his hands upon its head and confesses
over it all the iniquities and transgressions of the Israelites,
whatever their misdeeds, and so putting them on the head of the goat.
"And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not
inhabited..." -Leviticus 16:20-22
The Hebrew word for scapegoat is azazel. Azazel was seen as
a type of
satan. The sins of the people and thus the punishment of the people
were laid upon azazel the scapegoat. He would bear the sins of the
people and the punishment of the people would be upon him. Azazel being
sent into the wilderness is understood to be a picture of satan being
cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 19:20).
This ceremony can be found in Leviticus 16:7-10. Notice in
verse 8, one
lot is for the Lord, and the other lot is for the scapegoat. The high
priest took the two lots, one marked for the Lord and the other marked
for the scapegoat, and placed one upon the head of each animal, sealing
God gave this ceremony of the casting of lots during the Day of
Atonement to teach us how He will judge the nations of the world prior
to the Messianic age known as the Millennium. Jesus taught us about
this in Matthew 25:31-46.
FACE TO FACE
The high priest could only go into the Holy of Holies once a year
(Leviticus 16:2, Hebrews 9:6-7). God issued a warning that no man could
see His face and live (Exodus 33:20). But because on the Day of
Atonement the priest could be in God's presence (Leviticus 16:20),
another term for the Day of Atonement is "face to face".
Therefore, when the high priest stood before God on this day, he
said to be "face to face" with God. Face to face terminology was used
in First Corinthians 13:9-12.
Face to face is an idiom for the Day of Atonement. It was
on the Day of
Atonement that the high priest had to go behind the veil of the temple.
At that moment, the nation had to hold its breath because the nation's
fate depended upon God's accepting the sacrifice. At that point, the
high priest was "face to face with the mercy seat of God".
When the high priest entered the Holy of Holies, he saw the Lord's
presence as a brilliant cloud hovering above the mercy seat (Leviticus
16:2). The word for mercy seat in Hebrew is 'kapporet'. It comes from
the root word 'kaphar', which is the same word used for "atonement".
The mercy seat can also be translated as the seat of atonement. The
mercy seat is described in detail in Exodus 25:17-22 and 37:6-9. This
is the place where Moses met and spoke with God face to face (Exodus
25:22,30:6, Numbers 7:89).
THE GREAT SHOFAR
As mentioned in the last study on the Feast of Trumpets, when the
was discussed, there are three primary trumpets to the Jewish people and
these three trumpets are associated with specific days in the year.
These three trumpets are:
1. "The First Trump" blown and associated with Pentecost
2. "The Last Trump" blown and associated with Rosh HaShanah, the Feast
3. "The Great Trump" blown and associated with Yom Kippur, the Day of
It is on the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, when the Great Trumpet
blown. This is referred to in Isaiah 27:13 and Matthew 24:31.
The Day of Atonement was the most solemn of all the feast days.
the day of cleansing for the nation and for the sanctuary. On this day
alone, once a year, the high priest entered into the holiest of all, the
Holy of Holies in the temple, within the veil of the temple, with the
blood of the Lord's goat, the sin offering. Here he sprinkled the blood
on the mercy seat. The blood of the sin offering on the great Day of
Atonement brought about the cleansing of all sin for the priesthood, the
sanctuary, and Israel as a nation (Leviticus 16:29-34).
THE DAY OF ATONEMENT CEREMONIES
As we look at the ceremony itself, we will be able to see how it
to the Messiah Himself. In addition, we will be able to see how it
relates to the believers in the Lord Jesus.
1. The priest used a golden censer (Leviticus 16:1-2,12-14,
9:4) The censer is mentioned in Leviticus 16:12, Numbers 16:46, First
Kings 7:50-51, Second Chronicles 4:19,22 and Hebrews 9:4.
The incense of the golden censer represents the prayers of Bible
believers (Psalm 141:2, Luke 1:5-11, and Revelation 5:8, 8:3-4).
Aaron the high priest typifies the ministry of mediator and intercessor.
Jesus is our High Priest (Hebrews 3:1) and Mediator (1 Timothy 2:5,
Hebrews 12:24). He lives to make intercession for us (Romans 8:34,
2. He went within the veil once a year (Leviticus 16:2, Hebrews9:2,7).
By the death of Jesus, we are free to enter into the veil every
(Matthew 27:50-51, 2 Corinthians 3:14, Hebrews 4:16, 6:13-19, 10:19-22).
3. He washed himself in water (Leviticus 16:4,24).
For Aaron, this meant he must be absolutely clean in order to make
atonement on behalf of the people of Israel. For believers in Christ,
it means we are to be wahsed by the water of the Word of God as we
approach God as well for the removal of sin from our lives
(John 3:1-5,15, 1 Corinthians 6:11, Ephesians 5:26-27, Titus 3:5,
Hebrews 10:22). For Jesus, it meant that He was absolutely clean and
without sin when He made the atonement of sacrificing His body on the
4. He put on holy linen garments (Leviticus 16:4,23).
The priestly clothing is also mentioned in Exodus 28:1-4.
In verse 3
they are for glory and beauty. The linen garments speak of the sinless
humanity of the Lord and His righteousness. These linen garments were
stained with blood while the priest offered the sacrifices. After the
sacrifices were complete, the garments were taken off and new garments
were put on again (Leviticus 16:23-24). Isaiah 1:18 speaks of the
blood-stained garments and the new garments that were put on afterwards.
The white linen garments are clothes of righteousness (Job 29:14, Psalm
132:9, Isaiah 61:10 and Revelation 3:5,19:7-8).
5. At the moment the atonement was made on the Day of Atonement,
being atoned for were sinless and blameless before God. The
congregation of believers in the Lord Jesus is being presented before
God without spot or blemish (Ephesians 5:27) because of the blood of
Christ (1 Peter 1:19).
6. The bodies of the animals were outside the camp (Leviticus 16:27).
The bodies of the sin offering, both the bullock and the goat, were
taken outside the camp where they were burned. Jesus was crucified
outside the camp or gates of Jerusalem (John 19:17-20 and Hebrews
7. Many sacrifices were offered (Leviticus 16:1-6,25-27).
Our bodies are to be a living sacrifice to God (Romans 12:1, 1 Peter
2:5). We are to offer up a sacrifice of praise to God (Leviticus 7:12,
Psalm 34:1, 50:14,23, 69:30-31, 107:22, 116:17 and Hebrews 13:15-16).
Jesus is the sacrifice of God for us who believe on Him (Hebrews
8. The year of Jubilee was the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 25:9-11).
This was a year and day of liberty. Jesus came to preach this
at His first coming (Isaiah 61:1-3, Luke 4:17-21). From Adam, it has
been almost 6,000 years and 120 Jubilees. The number 120 points to the
end of the age of the flesh and the reign of the life of the spirit
(Genesis 6:3). The ultimate fulfillment of the year of Jubilee will
take place at the second coming of the Lord. The earth will be redeemed
and come into full and complete rest from the curse brought upon it by
Adam's sin. Complete restoration of man's lost inheritance will take
place. God's people will be totally set free -- set at liberty, from
all sin, sickness and disease, death, and the curse. Satan, the source
of all these things, will be bound and true rest will be realized. The
tabernacle of God will be with men and He will dwell with them
(Revelation 21:1-4). So, the year of Jubilee and the day of Atonement
speak of the fullness of the redemptive plan of God for man.
God divinely placed the Day of Atonement before the Feast of
Tabernacles, which is called "The Season of Our Joy." The children of
Israel and all believers in the Lord Jesus could only rejoice once they
were redeemed and their sins forgiven.
In Joel 2:15-16 we read..."Blow the trumpet in Zion, sanctify a
call a solemn assembly: Gather the people, sanctify the congregation,
assemble the elders, gather the children, and those that suck the
breasts: let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out
of her closet."
Jesus spoke of this same event in Matthew 24:27-31. In Matthew
the trumpet that is being blown is called by Jesus the great trumpet.
This is the trumpet that is blown on the Day of Atonement. This trumpet
will usher the return of Christ to rule as Messiah ben David, the King,
during the Messianic age.
The Day of Atonement serves as a vital preparatory step in anticipation
of the next milestone in God's glorious Holy Day plan, beautifully
depicted by the Feast of Tabernacles.
The Feasts of the Lord--Part VIII
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